The TRANSLATE field has appeared in Efficy 11.2 and indeed maps to the "translated" property of the field in the Designer. This activates the field contents translation in Efficy, which will generate in the edit window a blue button next to a field to enter the translated field values. For this to work, you also need to add the Translation detail in the edit context of the entity (there is a warning message that will tell you this).
The PUBLISH field has been present since the start. It tells the query builder that the field can be used in the so-called "Published" part of the query, which are the fields that you want to show in a query for all the records for which the user doesn't have the security access (and are normally invisible for the user).
In the options of a query definition you can put a "PublishedRows" boolean value that activates the Published part. This will generate a query with an additional "union all" which selects the fields that have the PUBLISH property set for all the records that are normally invisbible for the user.
AFAIK this feature is not really used.