No you cannot.
As you can see, on the table "sys_token" the link is not stored.
But you can always generate a new URL with :
Efficy.createSharingToken(entity, key, version, daysValid)
And the information about the sharing is stored in the table "systockens" (K2) : so you could make a query to retrieve the shared documents. And also create a new url.
What we did for another customer : we created an hidden field where we store the url of the public link.
Maybe that is a good suggestion for the R&D ?